Bonsai Styles

The expression - Bonsai Styles - means the forming of shape of the Bonsai. You can style your Bonsai in a number of ways, depending on the type of tree you are working with and the style you prefer.

Over the past several hundred years, many different bonsai styles have been popular, each fading in and out. The key is to make choices that will capture the essence of the beauty seen in the native tree used.

Bonsai can be classified into five basic styles: formal upright, informal upright, slanting, cascade, and semi-cascade. These classifications are based on the overall shape of the tree and how much the trunk slants away from an imaginary vertical axis.

The numerous Japanese bonsai styles are principally variations of these five basic styles. The single trunk style is the basic design that is simplest to shape because the one trunk determines the overall composition.

No matter what style you choose — whether single trunk specimens or groups of trees from single roots — everything depends on your selection of plant material, and your ability to visualize the bonsai’s final form.

Formal Upright

The formal upright style has classic proportions and is the basis of all bonsai. It is the easiest for a beginner to develop because it requires the least experimentation, avoids the problem of selective pruning, and should almost immediately become a displayable bonsai.

In this style, the form is conical or sometimes rounded and the tree has an erect leader and horizontal branches. One of the branches is lower and extends a little farther from the trunk than the others.

Also, the lowest two branches are trained to come forward on the front side of the tree, one slightly higher than the other. The third branch of this style extends out in the back of the tree at a level between the two side branches to give the plant depth.

Plants in the formal upright style look best in oval or rectangular containers. Do not center the plant when placing it in the container. Plant it about a third of the distance from one end.

Informal Upright

The informal upright style has much the same branch arrangement as the formal upright style, but the top — instead of being erect as in the formal upright style — bends slightly to the front.

This bend makes the tree’s branches appear to be in motion and enhances the look of informality.

The informal upright style looks best in an oval or rectangular container.

It should be planted, not in the center of the container, but a third of the distance form one end.


In the slanting style, the trunk has a more acute angle than in the previous styles. The lowest branch should spread in the direction opposite to that in which the tree slants.

The top of the tree is bent slightly toward the front. The lower branches are arranged in groups of three, starting about one-third the way up the trunk.

Slanting trees in nature are forced by the wind and gravity into nonvertical growth. The attitude of the slanting style falls between the upright and cascade styles. This style looks best planted in the center of a round or square container.


In the cascade style the trunk starts by growing upward from the soil, then turns downward abruptly, and reaches a point below the bottom edge of the container.

For this reason, the container should be placed on the edge of the table, or on a small stand.

Training a tree in the cascade style takes longer than in the slanting style. A cascaded planting usually looks best in a round or hexagonal container that is higher than it is wide.

The tree should be planted off-center from the cascading side.


The semi-cascade style has a trunk that is allowed to grow straight for a certain distance, and then is cascaded down at a less abrupt angle than in the cascade style.

The cascading branches are thought of as the front of the tree, and the back branches are trained closer to the trunk than in the other styles.

The semi-cascade should not reach below the bottom of the container, but should go below the level of the soil surface. This is one of the most atractive bonsai styles.

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